Sea Bream – Sparus aurata
“Orata” redirects here. For the ancient Roman of this name, see Aurata C.Sergius.
“Dorade” redirects here. For the yacht, see Dorade (yacht).
The gilt-head (sea) bream (Sparus aurata), called Orada in antiquity and still today in Italy (while in Spain is “Dorada”), is a fish of the bream family Sparidae found in the Mediterranean Sea and the eastern coastal regions of the North Atlantic Ocean. It commonly reaches about 35 centimetres (1.15 ft) in length, but may reach 70 cm (2.3 ft) and weigh up to about 7.36 kilograms (16.2 lb).
The gilt-head bream is generally considered the best-tasting of the breams. It is the single species of the genus Sparus – the Latin name for this fish – which has given the whole family of Sparidae its name. Its specific name, aurata, derives from the gold bar marking between its eyes.
The genome of the species was released in 2018, where the authors detected fast evolution of ovary-biased genes likely resulting from the peculiar reproduction mode of the species.
Sea Bass – Dicentrarchus labrax
The European bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a primarily ocean-going fish native to the waters off Europe’s western and southern and Africa’s northern coasts, though it can also be found in shallow coastal waters and river mouths during the summer months. It is one of only six species in its family, Moronidae, collectively called the temperate basses.
It is both fished and raised commercially, and is considered to be the most important fish currently cultured in the Mediterranean. In Ireland and the United Kingdom, the popular restaurant fish sold and consumed as sea bass is exclusively the European bass. In North America it is widely known by its Italian name, branzino.
European bass are a slow-growing species that takes several years to reach full adulthood. An adult European seabass usually weighs around 5 kg (11 lb). European bass can reach sizes of up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) in length and 12 kg (26 lb) in weight, though the most common size is only about half of that at 0.5 m (1 ft 8 in). Individuals are silvery grey in color and sometimes a dark-bluish color on the back.
Juveniles form schools and feed on invertebrates, while adults are less social and prefer to consume other fish. They are generally found in the littoral zone near the banks of rivers, lagoons, and estuaries during the summer, and migrate offshore during the winter. European sea bass feed on prawns, crabs and small fish. Though it is a sought-after gamefish, it is listed as Least Concern by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature because it is widespread and there are no known major threats.
Red sea bream – Pagrus major
Pagrus major, the red seabream is a fish species in the family Sparidae. In Japan, Pagrus major is known as madai (真鯛, or “genuine tai”) and is prized both for its flavor and for its traditional use as an auspicious food, often served at New Year’s and at festive occasions such as weddings. Successful sumo wrestlers are often photographed holding the fish. It is also the most commonly eaten fish in Taiwan. Habitat preference is genetically coded in juveniles, which helps them to choose the optimal microhabitat in a fluctuating environment. Habitat preference is only observed in juvenile fish up to the age of 30 days, while adult fish do not show any habitat preference.
It is widespread in the Northwest Pacific from the northeastern part of South China Sea (Philippines excluded) northward to Japan. It is a marine subtropical oceanodromous demersal fish.
Greater amberjack – Seriola Dumerili
The greater amberjack is a large predatory fish which has a body colouring which varies from brownish to bluish-grey on the dorsal surfaces contrasting with the silevery-white underparts, There is a diagonal sooty stripe which starts at the snout and runs along the centre of the back dorsal fin, another dark stripe runs from the upper jaw, through the eye to in front of the first dorsal fin.. Some fishes may show a light yellow to reddish-brown stripe along the flanks. The fins are dusky in colour. The second dorsal and anal fins have a low anterior lobe. Small juveniles have clear fins and a series of five vertical bands along the body and a sixth band on the caudal peduncle. The shape of the body is elongated and fusiform and it is of moderate depth, laterally compressed and has a covering of small cycloid scales.The largest fish have been measured at 190 centimetres (75 in) in total length but the more frequent length found is 100 centimetres (39 in), while the largest published weight is 80.6 kilograms (178 lb).
Stone bass – Corvina – Argyrosomus regius
Argyrosomus regius (also known as meagre, croaker, jewfish, shade-fish, sowa, kir, corvina, salmon-bass or stone bass) is a fish of the family Sciaenidae. It is similar in form to a European seabass, with a pearly-silver coloration and a yellow-coloured mouth. Length can range from 40–50 cm to 2 m long, with weights up to 55 kg.
Argyrosomus regius is a demersal, oceanodromous fish which is found in inshore waters and on the continental shelf, it can occur close to the bottom as well as in surface and mid-waters. The adults prey on grey mullet and clupeids such as sardines which are actively pursued in open water. The adults gather in inshore waters to spawn during spring and summer. The juveniles and subadults prefer estuaries and coastal lagoons, and the health of recruitment into the adult population is possibly determined by the availability of these habitats. These fish are migratory, at all ages, migrating along shore or between offshore and inshore waters in response to temperature changes. A. regius feeds on fishes and swimming crustaceans and mostly occurs over sand, close to rocks, at 1–200 m max, but commonly found at 15–100 m. The three main spawning sites in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea are the Nile delta, Lévrier Bay, and the Gironde estuary and with large numbers of adults congregate at these sites between May and July.Large schools of A. regius occur around wrecked ships that were deliberately sunk to create new habitat for a number of commercially caught species of fish. Most of their growth happens during the summer months and feeding activity is significantly reduced when the water temperature drops below 13-15 °C.
The newly hatched juveniles leave the estuaries where they spend the first few months at the end of summer and move into coastal waters with depths between 20 and 40 m where they spend the winter months. In the following Spring they return to their estuarine feeding areas from the middle of May. Water temperature is the most important factor that determines the trophic migration and reproduction of meagre. An adult female A. regius measuring 1.2m in length produces about 800,000 eggs and spawning occurs when the water temperature is 17-22 °C. The juveniles eat small demersal fish and crustaceans switching to pelagic fish and cephalopods once they grow to 30–40 cm in length.